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In this section we have listed Irish research from 2005 onwards, by year of publication.

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2017 open/close

European Drug Report 2017

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2017), European Drug Report 2017: Trends and Developments, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

The Trends and Developments report presents a top-level overview of the drug phenomenon in Europe, covering drug supply, use and public health problems as well as drug policy and responses. Together with the online Statistical Bulletin, Country Drug Reports and Perspectives on Drugs, it makes up the 2017 European Drug Report package. 


High-risk drug use and new psychoactive substances

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2017), High-risk drug use and new psychoactive substances, EMCDDA Rapid Communication, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

IThis report provides a first look at the emergence of more problematic forms of use of new psychoactive substances among a range of demographic groups, including opioid and amphetamine injectors, prisoners, the homeless and men who have sex with men. It explores, in particular, the use of synthetic cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids and new synthetic opioids, as well as related harms and responses.


2016 open/close

Growing up unequal: gender and socioeconomic differences in young people's health and well-being.

WHO Regional Office for Europe. (2016) WHO Regional Office for Europe.

The report releases data from 42 countries on a range of new topics, such as peer relationships and family support, the school environment, migration, cyber-bullying and serious injury, with the more traditional data on alcohol and tobacco consumption, mental health and nutrition-related behaviour. The report provides data on gender differences and behaviour change in the 11–15-year age group, years that mark a period of increased autonomy that can influence how health and health-related behaviour develops and continues into adulthood. The report highlights socioeconomic differences and variations between countries and regions. It identifies opportunities for policy interventions, as the findings underline the importance of the wider social context and the effect it can have on young people's health.

Download summary
Link to full report


Study on the exposure of minors to alcohol advertising on linear and non-linear audio-visual media services and other online services, including a content analysis.

European Commission. (2016) Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg .

The first report on the application of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) was published on 4 May 2012. This report indicated that, with regard to alcohol advertising, further investigations were necessary to assess, amongst other things, the exposure of minors to commercial communications for alcoholic beverages. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to answer three research questions:
  1. How much alcohol advertising does an average minor6 watching linear audio-visual media services (i.e. television broadcasting) in the European Union (EU) see?
  2. How much alcohol advertising does an average minor see on non-linear audio-visual media services (i.e. on-demand audio-visual media services) and other online services in the EU?
  • How much alcohol advertising does an average minor6 watching linear audio-visual media services (i.e. television broadcasting) in the European Union (EU) see?
  • How much alcohol advertising does an average minor see on non-linear audio-visual media services (i.e. on-demand audio-visual media services) and other online services in the EU?
  • For audio-visual media services (both linear and non-linear) and other onlineservices, what type of alcohol advertising does an average minor see in the EU? Are minors specifically targeted by alcohol advertising? In how far is alcohol advertising appealing to minors and how? In particular, in how far do the provisions of the AVMSD and their application afford the required level of protection?


The internet and drug markets.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2016) Publications Office of the European Union. 136 p. EMCDDA Insights 21

The last decade has seen the emergence of new internet technologies that have acted as important facilitators of online drug markets. The internet now hosts a range of virtual marketplaces (both on the surface and deep web) for selling and buying illicit substances, as well as representing a new arena for health and law enforcement interventions. This first EMCDDA investigation into the world of online drug markets brings together state-of-the-art input from over 20 experts — from academia, journalism and frontline practice — and contributes to the knowledge base on this part of the supply chain.


Preventing opioid overdose deaths with take-home naloxone.

Strang, J. and McDonald, R. eds. (2016) Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 104 p. EMCDDA Insights Series no. 20

This publication examines the case for distributing naloxone, an emergency medication, to people who inject opioids such as heroin and to others who might witness an opioid overdose. Through its capacity to reverse opioid overdose, naloxone can save lives if administered in time. This comprehensive review looks at opioid overdose and how naloxone counteracts it, and discusses the circumstances of opioid overdose deaths and the use of naloxone in regular clinical practice. As well as documenting the historical development and spread of take-home naloxone programmes in Europe and beyond, the study looks at the practical side of their implementation, including the training of naloxone recipients in how to recognise and respond to an overdose. Although take-home naloxone is supported by the World Health Organization, the report finds that barriers to its access exist in Europe and considers how the availability of the intervention may be expanded.


Impact of advertisements promoting candy-like flavoured e-cigarettes on appeal of tobacco smoking among children: an experimental study.

Vasiljevic, M. and Petrescu, D. C. and Marteau, T. M. (2016) BMJ Publishing. Tobacco Control

Background: There are concerns that the marketing of e-cigarettes may increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. We examined this concern by assessing the impact on appeal of tobacco smoking after exposure to advertisements for e-cigarettes with and without candy-like flavours, such as, bubble gum and milk chocolate.


National community action on alcohol project pilot 2015: external evaluation report.

Galligan, Claire (2015) Department of Health; Alcohol Forum and Health Service Executive, Ireland .

The National Community Action on Alcohol Pilot Project began in January 2015. The project was delivered by the Alcohol Forum in partnership with the Drug Programmes and Policy Unit, Department of Health and the Health and Wellbeing Division of the HSE. The project sought to reduce alcohol related harm, by supporting Drug and Alcohol Task Forces to adopt a ‘community mobilization’ approach.



2015 open/close

Presentations from the Lisbon addictions conference 2015. In: EMCDDA Conference on 20 years of monitoring and communicating evidence on drugs, 21-22 September, Lisbon.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2015)

The conference aimed to reflect on past successes but also to be forward-looking. Key issues to help the EMCDDA better achieve its aims include: increased data quality and comparability; improved timeliness; better identification of emerging trends; faster and more sensitive monitoring approaches; and the integration of traditional and new monitoring methods (e.g. wastewater analysis, internet surveys). The ultimate aim of this milestone event will be to contribute to reducing drug-related harms through better informed and faster evaluated policies.

Link to presentations 


Accidental injury, risk-taking behaviour and the social circumstances in which young people (aged 12-24) live: a systematic review.

Thomas, J and Kavanagh, J and Tucker, H and Burchett, H and Tripney, J and Oakley, A (2007) EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.

In industrialised countries such as England and Wales, unintended injury (which ranges from sprains in sport to hospitalisation and death due to drugs or transport crashes) is the leading cause of death in children aged 0 to 14 years, and a major cause of death in young adults aged 15 to 24. It is also a major cause of ill health and disability in these age groups. There is a large body of research on young people and their perceived propensity to take risks. Common sense suggests that an increased willingness to place oneself at risk will result an increased likelihood of physical injury. However, given that pathways to injury are complex and not always well understood, the UK Department of Health commissioned a large systematic review to examine this multifaceted issue.



The European health report 2015. Targets and beyond – reaching new frontiers in evidence.

(2015) World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.

This publication presents highlights from the 2015 European health report. It shows continuing improvements in health throughout the Region and decreases in some of the inequalities in health between countries, notably in life expectancy and infant mortality; nevertheless, these differences still amount to 11 years of life and 20 healthy babies per 1000 live births between the best- and worst-performing countries. Absolute differences between countries remain unacceptably large, especially for indicators linked to social determinants of health, and the European Region still has the highest rates of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking in the world. 

Download summary report   Download full report


UK life in recovery survey 2015. The first national UK survey of addiction recovery experiences.

Best, D., Albertson, K., Irving, J., Lightowlers, C., Mama-Rudd, A. and Chaggar, A.. (2015) Sheffield Hallam University and Helena Kennedy Centre for International Justice, Sheffield .

The report outlines UK respondents' recovery experiences, reports on their pathways to recovery and details the impact that recovery has had on their quality of life



Drug-related infectious diseases in Europe: update from the EMCDDA expert network.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2015) European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon .

This report provides an update on infectious diseases related to injecting drug use in Europe for the period up to June 2015. The report covers both the EMCDDA Drug-related infectious diseases indicator, which collects data on the situation, and the responses in the area. It includes highlights and new findings discussed during the indicator's annual expert meeting, held in Lisbon on 15 and 16 June 2015. This two-day event offered a platform for discussion among experts from the 28 EU Member States, Norway and Turkey. Topics receiving particular attention include: an update of the HIV situation and concerns in some countries; bacterial infections, including botulism outbreaks in Scotland and Norway; and changing patterns of injection in Europe and their implications for public health. Challenges in scaling up HCV treatments and good national examples in this area are also discussed.



Service user involvement: a guide for commissioners, providers and service users.

Public Health England. (2015) Public Health England. 

Service users’ involvement in the design and delivery of services has contributed significantly to the evolution of effective drug and alcohol treatment systems. This guide builds on guidance published by the National Treatment Agency (NTA) in 2006,1 looking at the evidence base, the different levels of involvement, and the impact of involvement on service users and treatment effectiveness. There is enthusiasm for service user involvement (SUI) across the country, with a mixture of different approaches and design. This document is intended to be a useful guide to exploring and developing further SUI in your area.



Prevention of addictive behaviours. EMCDDA Insights Series no. 18

Buhler, Anneke and Thrul, Johannes European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2015) Publications Office of the European Union. 

This publication is an update of Prevention of substance abuse, published in 2007. Like the previous analysis, it is a translation of a German study that presents a state-of-the-art review of prevention science. Although originally targeted at the German audience, the evidence base addressed is global in its scope. The review is broad in its considerations, covering not only the main topic of drug abuse but also alcohol and tobacco, as well as behavioural addictions, such as gambling.



Steroids and image enhancing drugs. 2014 survey results.

McVeigh, Jim and Bates, Geoff and Chandler, Martin (2015) Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Hopkins University. 16 p.

The use of performance-enhancing substances by athletes is as old as sport itself. However, over the past decade, concern has grown as the use of a wide variety of drugs being used — in particular anabolic steroids and growth hormone — has transcended the elite sporting arena to the general population where they are used for both performance- and image-enhancing reasons. However, even for the most commonly used and best known of the substances, anabolic steroids, there is a paucity of reliable information as to the prevalence of use.

This group of drug users, referred to as steroid and image enhancing drugs (SIEDs) users presents a number of specific challenges for healthcare services; they are injecting drug users who frequently employ very complex drug regimens with no evidential basis.

In order to better understand and evidence the public health issues, Public Health Wales commissioned an online survey of SIED users in the UK, in collaboration with academic colleagues at the Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University. This document summarises key findings from the second year of the SIEDs survey, with a particular focus of the report being on the specific drugs of use. The report also outlines the further dissemination of results from the 2014 data sweep of the survey and describes developments for enhanced data collection in 2015. These summary findings from the 2014 survey should be viewed in conjunction with the 2013 survey results (Chandler & McVeigh, 2014).

Download 2015 survey results

Download 2014 survey results


Alcohol: a toolkit for improving care.

The Royal College of Emergency Medicine. (2015) The Royal College of Emergency Medicine.

The aims of the toolkit are:
1. Promotion of best practice in the area of alcohol management - methods of screening and complete management of the patient with alcohol related illness and injury in EDs.
2. Advancement of safe and effective care in this area - advising on approaches on how to care for this subset of patients and sharing best practice with the use of medications.
3. Education and training of Emergency Medicine doctors - by provision of guidelines and advocating training.


Draft Council conclusions on the implementation of the EU Action Plan on Drugs 2013-2016 regarding minimum quality standards in drug demand reduction in the European Union.

Council of the European Union. (2015) Council of the European Union, Brussels .


Alternatives to punishment for drug-using offenders.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2015) Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg .

Based on the options provided by the international drug control legal framework, this paper considers the rehabilitative measures of treating, educating or reintegrating drug users as alternatives or additions to conviction or punishment that are established in the laws of many countries in Europe today


European drug report 2015: trends and developments.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2015) Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg .


Alcohol advertising and sponsorship in formula one: a dangerous cocktail.

Eurocare, Institute of Alcohol Studies, Monash University. (2015) Eurocare. 18 p.

Alcohol advertising and sponsorship in sport is a contested issue, with the major medical and public health institutions in Europe calling for a ban, similar to the ban on tobacco sports sponsorship. This report reviews the available literature on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and consumption.
2014 open/close

Guide to the European Union (Prevention of Sharps Injuries in the Healthcare Sector) Regulations 2014.

Health and Safety Authority. (2014) Health and Safety Authority

The purpose of this guide is to provide practical information on the implementation of the European Union (Prevention of Sharps Injuries in the Healthcare Sector) Regulations 2014, hereafter referred to as ‘’the Regulations’’. The information is aimed at employers, managers, employees, safety representatives, health and safety practitioners and other interested parties in the healthcare sector.



Pregnancy and opioid use: strategies for treatment, EMCDDA Papers.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2014) Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg .

Illicit opioid consumption during pregnancy brings with it the risk of an increase in obstetric complications for the mother and a range of potential dangers for the child, both before and after birth. The primary goal when treating opioid dependence in pregnant women is to stabilise the patient and psychosocially assisted opioid substitution treatment is the preferred first-line therapy for this group. 

Several combinations of substitution medicines and psychosocial approaches are available. This paper reviews methadone, buprenorphine and slow-release oral morphine, used in a range of combinations with cognitive behavioural approaches and contingency management in order to identify the strengths of each medicine and method.


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