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Ireland

In this section we have listed Irish research from 2005 onwards, by year of publication.

If you wish to suggest additional papers for inclusion in this section of our website please contact us at info@drugs.ie or call us on 01 960 3004.

 

2017 open/close
 

EMCDDA: Ireland Country Drug Report 2017.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland, country drug report 2017. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities..

This report presents the top-level overview of the drug phenomenon in Ireland, covering drug supply, use and public health problems as well as drug policy and responses. The statistical data reported relate to 2015 (or most recent year) and are provided to the EMCDDA by the national focal point, unless stated otherwise.

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Alcohol related harm profile 2017: Galway

Health Service Executive, Alcohol Forum. (2017) Alcohol related harm profile 2017: Galway. Galway: Health Service Executive.

In 2016 the Alcohol Forum, selected clinical services and the Department of Public Health Medicine (DPHM), HSENE, HSENW and HSEW, collaborated on an exercise to scope the availability of data to describe alcohol-related harm in Ireland. The intention was to identify quality assured databases that provided data at county level to allow the development of a County Alcohol Harm profile for each county in Ireland. The purpose of the profile was to provide a baseline from which trends could be measured and to inform local planning and action to reduce alcohol harm. The profiles have the potential to become an important tool for a range of organisations and structures operating at the County level.

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Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force. (2017) Drug and Alcohol Trends Monitoring System (DATMS) 2017.

Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force. (2017) Drug and Alcohol Trends Monitoring System (DATMS) 2017. Year 2. Dublin: Blanchardstown Local Drug

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Supporting women to access treatment (2016)

Clara Geaney (2017). Supporting Women To Access Treatment 2016: An Exploration of Women’s Participation in Health and Substance Misuse Services in Ballyfermot. Dublin:Ballyfermot Drugs and Alcohol Task Force.

This document details the range of activities which have been undertaken within the Ballyfermot LDATF region in 2016 as part of the SWAT (Supporting Women to Access Treatment) project.

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Prevalence of Drug Use and Gambling in Ireland and Drug Use in Northern Ireland 2014/15: Regional Drug and Alcohol Task Force (Ireland) and Health and Social Care Trust (Northern Ireland) Results

National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol. (2017) Prevalence of drug use and gambling in Ireland and drug use in Northern Ireland 2014/15: regional drug and alcohol task force (Ireland) and health and social care trust (Northern Ireland) results. Bulletin 2. Dublin: National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol.

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Drug Treatment in Ireland 2009 - 2015

Health Research Board. (2017) Drug treatment in Ireland 2009-2015. Dublin: Health Research Board.

The National Drug Treatment Reporting System (NDTRS) records cases of treated problem drug and alcohol use in Ireland between 2009 and 2015.

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Alcohol Treatment in Ireland 2009 - 2015

Health Research Board. (2017) Alcohol treatment in Ireland 2009-2015. Dublin: Health Research Board.

The National Drug Treatment Reporting System (NDTRS) records cases of treated problem drug and alcohol use in Ireland between 2009 and 2015. 

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Ballyfermot Local Drugs and Alcohol Task Force Alcohol Study 2016

Okakpu, E. , Mc Donnell , S. and Mc Hugh, R. (2017).Ballyfermot Local Drugs and Alcohol Task Force Alcohol Study 2016 .Dublin: Archways

A study commissioned by Ballyfermot Local Drugs and Alcohol Task Force to understand current pattern of alcohol use within the area

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Focal Point Ireland: national report for 2016– Drugs Ireland

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 - drugs. Dublin: Health Research Board.

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Focal Point Ireland: national report for 2016 - Drug Policy Ireland

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 – drug policy. Dublin: Health Research Board.

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Focal Point Ireland: national report for 2016 - Drug markets and crime

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 - drug markets and crime. Dublin: Health Research Board.

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Focal Point Ireland: national report for 2016 - harms and harm reduction

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 - harms and harm reduction. Dublin: Health Research Board.

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Focal Point Ireland: national report for 2016 - Prevention

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 - prevention. Dublin: Health Research Board.

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Focal Point Ireland: national report for 2016 - Prison

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 - prison. Dublin: Health Research Board.

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Focal Point Ireland: national report for 2016 - Treatment

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 - treatment. Dublin: Health Research Board.

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Ireland: national report for 2015 - Legal framework

Health Research Board. Irish National Focal Point to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2017) Ireland: national report for 2016 – legal framework. Dublin: Health Research Board.

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“Its only weed”. Rethinking our response to young people’s cannabis use

O'Brien, Karl and Foley, Brian (2017) “Its only weed”. Rethinking our response to young people’s cannabis use. Dublin: Ballymun Youth Action Project.

This research was carried out in the context of close partnership relationships between key agencies in Ballymun concerned with, and focussing on, providing and supporting positive opportunities for young people in our community.  Emerging evidence of cannabis as a problem drug may surprise people who have become accustomed to the view of cannabis as a recreational drug, that causes minimum levels of harm.  However, new more potent strains are now in circulation and at Equal Youth we began to question and consider what our own role was in addressing the impact of these changes for the young people in our community. 

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2016 open/close
 

Alcohol Treatment Services in Ireland: How the public view them

Health Service Executive.

Report prepared by Dr Ann Hope and Professor Joe Barry, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Trinity College Dublin
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ICCL Submission to the Oireachtas Joint Committee on Justice, Defence & Equality on the review of Ireland's approach to possession of limited quantities of certain drugs.

Irish Council for Civil Liberties. (2015) Irish Council for Civil Liberties, Dublin .

Reformists advance that scientific knowledge defies mainstream approaches that, a fortiori, do not achieve the intended objectives. They claim that current policies perversely bring about considerable and unnecessary human suffering, ignoring that upwards of 80% of persons with serious drug problems are victims muffling their suffering due to severe trauma and abuse, often sustained during childhood. Some also claim that the vast majority of people who expose themselves to drugs do not become addicted and discontinue use or remain occasional or recreational users. They also argue that current policies are extremely costly and that the bulk of the resources spent on law enforcement should be invested to far better results in harm reduction, prevention and education, and in improving health care and treatment of persons suffering from substance use disorders. Examples of policies adopted in certain countries seem to bear this out.
 

A scoping review of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes: implications for prevention, treatment, and policy.

Hearne, Evelyn and Grund, Jean-Paul Cornelius and Van Hout, Marie Claire and McVeigh, Jim (2016) Harm Reduction Journal, 13 (14).

This review highlights the necessity of prevention, education, and also harm reduction related to home-produced drugs and also recommends consistent monitoring of online drug fora, online drug marketplaces, and unregulated pharmacies.

 

Submission to Joint Committee on Justice, Defence and Equality on its Review of Ireland's approach to the possession of limited quantities of certain drugs.

BeLonG To Youth Services. (2015) BeLong to Youth Project, Dublin .

 

Alcohol and driving.

National Driver Licence Service. (2016) Road Safety Authority and the National Programme Office for Traffic Medicine, Dublin .

This is an overview of the driving risks for drivers who misuse alcohol and have alcohol-dependence issues.
 

Policy and practice in ethnic data collection and monitoring.

Pavee Point Travellers and Roma Centre. (2016) Pavee Point Travellers and Roma Centre, Dublin .

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The LGBT Ireland report: national study of the mental health and wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people in Ireland.

Higgins, Agnes and Doyle, L and Downes, C and Murphy, R and Sharek, Danika and DeVries, J and Begley, T and McCann, E and Sheerin, F and Smyth, S (2016) GLEN and BelongTo, Dublin .

The LGBTIreland Report details the findings of a national study of the mental health and wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people in Ireland, with a special emphasis on young people. Due to the extraordinary response rate received from the LGBTI population, this study is considered to be the largest study of LGBTI people in Ireland to date, the largest study of transgender people, and the first study with a sample of intersex people. This report summarises the main findings of the study with particular reference to the 1,064 LGBTI people aged between 14 and 25. There were 416 aged between 14 and 18 and 648 aged between 19 and 25. The report also emphasises the variety of lived experiences found within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex population in Ireland.

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Parental alcohol use and resilience in young people in Northern Ireland: a study of family, peer & school processes.

McLaughlin, Aisling and O'Neill, Tara and McCarten, Claire and Percy, Andy and McCann, Mark and Perra, Oliver and Higgins, Kathryn (2016) HSC Research and Development Division, Public Health Agency, Belfast .

Problem drinkers are those at risk of problems (e.g. being unable to carry out normal activities) or accidents (e.g. injuries) as a result of drinking too much. Problem drinking can range from moderate and binge drinking to those who abuse and are dependent on alcohol. We carried out this study to find out what impact problem drinking by parents has on their children’s outcomes during adolescence and early adulthood.
 

Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force. Drug and Alcohol Trends Monitoring System (DATMS).

Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force. (2016) Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force, Dubin .

The Blanchardstown Local Drug and Alcohol Task Force (BLDATF) developed the Drug and Alcohol Trends Monitoring System (DATMS) to provide up-to-date information about drug and alcohol use among people living in Dublin 15. The DATMS identified the types of drugs used within the community, and identified new emerging trends at an early stage of development. This information is essential for identifying key issues and will be used to inform the development of appropriate strategies to respond to the identified issues. The data has established a baseline on trends from which future changes will be monitored over time.
 
 

Demanding money with menace: drug-related intimidation and community violence in Ireland.

Connolly, J. and Buckley, L. (2016) Citywide Drugs Crisis Campaign, Dublin .

This report presents the findings of research on drug-related intimidation and community violence in a number of Local and Regional Drugs Task Force areas throughout Ireland. The research was a joint collaboration between Citywide Drugs Crisis Campaign and the Health Research Board (HRB).
 
 

Pathways through treatment: a mixed-methods longitudinal outcomes study of Coolmine therapeutic community.

Babineau, K. and Harris, A. (2015) Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Dublin .

This report documents the key findings from a mixed-methods, longitudinal study of service users at Coolmine Therapeutic Community (CTC), a drug and alcohol treatment centre in Dublin.

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Ireland’s financial crisis and its influence on alcohol and drug issues.

Butler, Shane and Hope, Ann (2015) Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 32 (6). pp. 623-628.

Budget 2009 (announced in December 2008) increased tax on alcohol, resulting in a drop in consumption; Budget 2010 decreased tax and consumption increased; Budget 2013 increased tax and, again, consumption decreased. Prior to the crash of 2008, a shift in the pattern of alcohol purchasing, from pub or ‘on-premise’ to supermarket or ‘offlicence’ purchasing had already emerged; this was a shift which had been facilitated by the introduction in the year 2000 of more liberal licensing regulations (Hope, 2014). What this meant in practice was that the number of pubs declined while, between 2002 and 2009, the number of off-licence retail outlets doubled (Revenue Commissioners Annual Reports). One key influence on the expansion of the off-licence sector was the abolition in 2006 of the Groceries Order. This meant that, for the first time, Irish retailers could now sell alcohol at below-cost price; and supermarkets in particular, were quick to seize the advantage of using very cheap alcohol as a loss leader which would increase ‘footfall’, thereby increasing their customer bases

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National community action on alcohol project pilot 2015: external evaluation report.

Galligan, Claire (2015) Department of Health; Alcohol Forum and Health Service Executive, Ireland .

The National Community Action on Alcohol Pilot Project began in January 2015. The project was delivered by the Alcohol Forum in partnership with the Drug Programmes and Policy Unit, Department of Health and the Health and Wellbeing Division of the HSE. The project sought to reduce alcohol related harm, by supporting Drug and Alcohol Task Forces to adopt a ‘community mobilization’ approach.

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2015 open/close
 
 

Injection of new psychoactive substance snow blow associated with recently acquired HIV infections among homeless people who inject drugs in Dublin, Ireland, 2015. 

Giese, C., Igoe, D., Gibbons, Z., Hurley, C., Stokes, S., McNamara, S., and Ennis, O., and O'Donnell, K., and Keenan, E., and De Gascun, C., and Lyons, F., and Ward, M., and Danis, K., and Glynn, R., and Waters, A., and Fitzgerald, M., (2015) Euro surveillance : bulletin Européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 20 (40).

In February 2015, an outbreak of recently acquired HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) was identified in Dublin, following similar outbreaks in Greece and Romania in 2011. We compared drug and risk behaviours among 15 HIV cases and 39 controls. Injecting a synthetic cathinone, snow blow, was associated with recent HIV infection (AOR: 49; p = 0.003). Prevention and control efforts are underway among PWID in Dublin, but may also be needed elsewhere in Europe.
 
 

State of the nation's children report: Ireland 2014.

Office of the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs. (2015) Government Publications, Dublin .

This is Ireland’s fifth biennial State of the Nation’s Children report. These reports are compilations of data from many sources. They provide the most up-to-date data on the National Set of Child Well-being Indicators in one place and aim to:

  • chart the well-being of children in Ireland;
  • track changes over time;
  • benchmark progress in Ireland relative to other countries;
  • highlight policy issues arising.

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Youth health report 2015. Summary of findings relating to 15-24 year olds in the Healthy Ireland Survey 2015.

SpunOut.ie. (2015) SpunOut.ie, Dublin .

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Alcohol seminar - Drug & Alcohol Task Forces 25/9/15. In: The Public Health (Alcohol) Bill. ‘Lessons from the past, potential for the future’,

Cullen, Bazzie (2015) 25 September 2015, F2 Centre, Dublin.

The aim of the seminar was to bring together representatives from the Task Forces, across all three sectors – community, voluntary and statutory- to have a focused discussion on the Public health (Alcohol) bill, within the context of:
(1) The role of alcohol within the current National Strategy, and
(2) Its role in the next National Drug and Alcohol Misuse Strategy, which is currently being prepared.

The seminar also aimed to add further to calls for the enactment of the Public Health (Alcohol) Bill and for participants to share their experiences, to date, of trying to incorporate alcohol into the work of Task Forces.

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Just saying... the views of young people about drugs and alcohol.

North Inner City Drug and AlcoholTask Force. (2015) North Inner City Drug and Alcohol Task Force, Dublin

This report looks at those views of the 400 young students from 9 local schools who took part in 4 Youth Conventions we organised in 2013 and 2014

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The dynamics of long-term homelessness among women in Ireland.

Mayock, Paula and Sheridan, Sarah and Parker, Sarah (2015) Dublin Region Homeless Executive, Dublin .

The Dublin Region Homeless Executive (DRHE) has commissioned this research paper in order to provide a context for the DRHE’s publication Mapping Homeless Services for Women in Dublin, which provides results of a survey of women’s services conducted in 2013. The survey was undertaken to fulfil a commitment in the 2012 Business Plan to review service provision to women in the Dublin Region. However, in order to provide an insight into the real-lived experiences of some of the women who have accessed emergency accommodation services over many years, the production of a supportive research paper which examined homeless women’s interactions with services was proposed.

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Homelessness: an unhealthy state. Health status, risk behaviours and service utilisation among homeless people in two Irish cities.

O'Reilly, F.,  Barror, S., Hannigan, A., Scriver, S., Ruane, L., McFarlane, A. and O'Carroll, A.. (2015) The Partnership for Health Equality, Dublin .

Homelessness is an unhealthy state with homeless people suffering disproportionate levels of illness and addiction. Almost the entire sample had either a diagnosed mental or physical health problem with the majority receiving treatment for ill health. The findings from this study also show an increase in medical card coverage. Over half the Dublin sample and most of the Limerick sample reported visiting their own GP in the past six months. The increased use of primary care services in Dublin appears to have been facilitated by specialised services for homeless people. Overall, the health needs of the homeless are great and though much has been done already to improve access and care, much more can be done, particularly in the area of mental health and addiction. Ultimately though, a move from the homeless situation will improve health and wellbeing. 

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Linking learning to National Standards. How recommendations from previous HIQA investigation, statutory inquiry and review reports (2009–2015) relate to specific National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare.

Health Information and Quality Authority. (2015) Health Information and Quality Authority, Dublin .

This is new guidance to help hospitals and healthcare providers improve quality and safety by linking recommendations — from previous HIQA investigations and reviews into healthcare services — with National Standards that they are expected to meet.
 

Research evidence to prevent alcohol-related harm: what communities can do in Ireland.

Hope, Ann (2015) Galway Healthy Cities: Galway City Alcohol Strategy to Prevent and Reduce Alcohol-Related Harm (2013-2017)., Galway .

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HIV in Ireland: 2014 report.

HSE-Health Protection Surveillance Centre. (2015) Health Protection Surveillance Centre, Dublin .

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A 7 year follow-up study (2008-2014) with graduates of the Ballymun Strengthening Families Programme (SFP 12-16 years).

Roe, Sandra (2015) Ballymun Local Drugs and Alcohol Task Force, Dublin 

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Smoking, attitudes to smoking and provision of smoking cessation advice in two teaching hospitals in Ireland: do smoke-free policies matter?

Ohakim, A. and Mellon, L. and Jafar, B. and O'Byrne, C. and McElvaney, N.G. and Cormican, L. and McDonnell, R. and Doyle, F. (2015) Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 3 (1). pp. 142-153.

Brief cessation advice from health-care professionals in the hospital setting significantly increases the likelihood of patients quitting smoking, yet patients are not routinely provided with this advice. Smoke-free hospital policies aim to protect individuals from the adverse effects of smoking; however, it is unclear if such policies encourage systematic delivery of cessation advice by health-care professionals. The study's aim was to determine the prevalence of smoking and cessation advice received by in-patients in two teaching hospitals in Ireland which have implemented smoke-free hospital policies, and to examine patient attitudes towards smoking cessation.
 

National Drugs Strategy 2009-2016: progress report to end 2014.

Ireland. Department of Health. (2015) Department of Health, Dublin .

Drugs misuse continues to be one of the most significant challenges facing our country. It is highly destructive and has devastating effects on individuals, relationships, families, communities and society in general.

Implementation of the National Drugs Strategy 2009-2016, which sets out Government policy in dealing with the drugs problem, is being pursued across a range of Government Departments and Agencies. Solid progress is being made across the 63 Actions of the Strategy, which are based around the five pillars of supply reduction, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and research.

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Model-based appraisal of minimum unit pricing for alcohol in the Republic of Ireland.

Angus, C. and Meng, Y. and Ally, A. and Holmes, J. and Brennan, A.. (2014) ScHARR, University of Sheffield. 

Estimates from the Irish adaptation of the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 3 (SAPM3) suggest:

1. Minimum unit pricing policies (MUP) would be effective in reducing alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harms (including alcohol-related deaths, hospitalisations, crimes and workplace absences) and the costs associated with those harms. 2. A ban on below-cost selling (implemented as a ban on selling alcohol for below the cost of duty plus the VAT payable on that duty) would have a negligible impact on alcohol consumption or related harms. 3. A ban on price-based promotions in the off-trade, either alone or in tandem with an MUP policy would be effective in reducing alcohol consumption, related harms and associated costs. 4. MUP and promotion ban policies would only have a small impact on low risk drinkers. Somewhat larger impacts would be experienced by increasing risk drinkers, with the most substantial effects being experienced by high risk drinkers. 5. MUP and promotion ban policies would have larger impacts on those in poverty, particularly high risk drinkers in poverty, than on those not in poverty. However; those in poverty also experience larger relative gains in health and are estimated to very marginally save money due to their reduced drinking under the majority of policies.

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Review of needle exchange provision in Ireland.

Bingham, T. and Harnedy, N. and O'Driscoll, D. and Doyle, J. (2015) Health Service Executive, Dublin .

The review was designed to assess:
  • The existence of clinical governance and quality assurance policies and procedures
  • Whether data collected regarding service users and needle exchange services met national and international standards
  • Needle exchange activity in 2012
  • Referral rates to healthcare and social services
  • Needle exchange provision throughout the country
 

Boxing Clever: exploring the impact of a substance use rehabilitation programme.

Morton, Sarah and O'Reilly, Laura and O'Brien, Karl (2015) Ballymun Youth Action Project, Dublin .

Over the past three years, Ballymun Youth Action Project (BYAP), in partnership with key statutory and community agencies, has developed and implemented the Boxing Clever Intervention Programme. In partnership with the UCD School of Applied Social Science Community Partnership Drugs Programme, BYAP and partner agencies made the decision to engage in an evaluative research process of the Boxing Clever Programme over a twelve month period in 2013/2014. This report presents the findings from this research project, with a particular focus on the structure, impact and outcomes of the Boxing Clever programme.
 

Health and use of health services of people who are homeless and at risk of homelessness who receive free primary health care in Dublin.

Keogh, Claire and O'Brien, Kirsty K and Hoban, Anthony and O'Carroll, Austin and Fahey, Tom (2015) BMC Health Services Research, 15 (58).

Homeless populations experience poorer physical and mental health, and more barriers to accessing adequate healthcare. This study investigates the health of this population, following the provision of a free to access primary care service for homeless people in Dublin (Safetynet). The health of this group will be compared to previous studies on homelessness conducted in Dublin prior to the establishment of this service (in 1997 and 2005).
 
 

Smoking in Ireland 2014: synopsis of key patterns.

Hickey, Paul and Evans, David S. National Tobacco Control Office. (2015) Health Service Executive, Dublin .

The Office of Tobacco Control (OTC) initiated a smoking prevalence tracker survey (Smoking Tracker Survey) in July 2002. The survey was continued by the OTC until the Office was dissolved in 2010. At that stage many of the functions of the OTC transferred to the Health Service Executive who have continued the survey.  The smoking prevalence tracker survey involves a monthly nationally representative telephone poll of 1000 people (randomly selected) aged 15 years and over.
 

Drug & alcohol family support needs analysis report.

McDonagh, Debbie and Reddy, John (2015) Western Region Drugs Task Force, Galway.

This research aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the ways families affected by substance use seek support. The report explores the availability and effectiveness of such support as well as providing information useful to service agencies, families and communities on existing drug and alcohol services and supports in the western region.

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2014 open/close
 

Position paper on electronic cigarettes.

Irish Cancer society. (2014) Irish Cancer Society, Dublin .

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Let’s talk about recovery: conference highlights and presentations. In: Let's talk about recovery., Tuesday september 30th, Ashling Hotel, Dublin 7.

Northwest Inner City Network and Soilse. (2014)

More than 100 people from a wide variety of community and statutory services in Dublin’s north inner city attended a recent conference on addiction recovery in the Aisling Hotel, Parkgate Street. Organised by the Northwest Inner City Network and Soilse, the conference was entitled ‘Let’s Talk About Recovery’. It opened with an overview of a groundbreaking study, Addiction Recovery: A Contagious Paradigm. This was followed by a moving testimonial from a former Soilse participant who is now a recovery coach. Four workshops on ‘recovery and services’ and ‘recovery and communities’ brought a range of insightful contributions from those attending the conference. After a feedback session, the conference heard two further presentations, one looking at the experiences and views of people in recovery, the other exploring how national policy supports the recovery agenda. The conference concluded with remarks from Gerry McAleenan, head of Soilse.
 
 

Illicit drug markets in Ireland.

Connolly, Johnny and Donovan, Anne Marie (2014) National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol, Dublin.

Understanding the organisation, scale, nature and dynamics of illicit drug markets is a critical requirement for effective policy-making and for interventions designed to disrupt their operation and to minimise the associated harms. Through in-depth research with people involved in the illicit drug market in Ireland, as drug users or sellers, as professionals responding to it or as residents affected by it, this research fills a significant knowledge gap in this important area of Irish drug policy.
 

Coolmine annual report 2013. 40 years helping people overcome addiction.

Coolmine Therapeutic Community (2014) Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Dublin.

Coolmine's continuum of care supports clients from their contemplation of a life free from dependence on drugs and alcohol, right the way through to aftercare, when clients return to the wider community after rehabilitation.
 

Where are they now? A follow-up study to Cork Simon’s 2013 report ‘How did I get here?’.

O'Reilly, Owen and Foley, Jacklyn Cork Simon Community. (2014)Cork Simon Community, Cork .

Where Are They Now?’ is a follow-up report to a paper Cork Simon Community published in October 2013 - ‘How Did I Get Here?’ That report explored the pathways into homelessness among people staying in our emergency shelter for a five week period in early Summer 2013. It analysed people’s life histories and experiences, their personal challenges and health problems, and it examined the supports people needed to facilitate their move out of homelessness. Twelve months later, ‘Where Are They Now?’ reviews the current housing of that same group of people, attempts to identify the supports that helped people to move out of homelessness and the barriers that are preventing people from leaving emergency accommodation. 
 

Merchants Quay Ireland. Annual review 2013. 

Merchants Quay Ireland. (2014) Merchants Quay Ireland, Dublin

MQI’s 17th Annual Review highlights the continued growth of homelessness and drug use and the increasing levels of hardship and vulnerability experienced by the many men and women caught in drugs and homelessness today. While there is much talk of the improving economic situation, these improvements haven’t filtered down to those most in need.
 

Addiction recovery: a contagious paradigm! A case for the re-orientation of drug treatment services and rehabilitation services in Ireland.

Keane, M. & McAleenan, G. & Barry, J. (2014) Soilse, Dublin 

Rehabilitation, or recovery as it more appropriately should be termed, has been the poor relation of Ireland’s response to illicit drug use, particularly opiate addiction, where most of the resources have been directed over the past 20 years. This paper – Addiction Recovery: A contagious paradigm! – makes the case to correct this. The initiative grew out of Soilse’s 20th anniversary symposium in the summer of 2012.There are three components to the paper: a review of the literature, a critique of Irish policy in relation to recovery/rehabilitation and the outputs of the Soilse symposium (workshops and personal narratives of people in recovery). The three components point in the same direction: it is time to prioritise recovery.
 
 

Hidden harm stakeholder consultation. (In: Hidden Harm Stakeholder Consultation, 28th January 2014)

Health Service Executive, Child and Family Services. (2014) Radisson Hotel Sligo

This brief report aims to summarise findings from the stakeholder consultation and identify actions for the practice change sites going forward.

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Dublin 12 Alcohol Programme Evaluation.

Dermody, A. & Gardner, C. (2014) Dublin: Dublin 12 Local Drugs Task Force and Addiction Response Crumlin. 

The Addiction Response Crumlin ten-week Alcohol Reduction Programme supports people  who wish to reducce their alcohol use or abstain from alcohol use. The Programme is based on the Reduce the Use model. The evaluation of the Programme was conducted between February and April 2014.

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OECD health statistics 2014. How does Ireland compare?

OECD. (2014) OECD, Paris

Total health spending accounted for 8.9% of GDP in Ireland in 2012, slightly less than the OECD average of 9.3%. Health spending as a share of GDP is much lower in Ireland than in the United States (which spent 16.9% of its GDP on health) and in a number of European countries including the Netherlands, France, Switzerland and Germany (all allocating over 11%). The public sector is the main source of health funding in nearly all OECD countries. In Ireland, 68% of health spending was funded by public sources in 2012, slightly less than the average of 72% in OECD countries. The proportion of daily smokers in Ireland has decreased over the past decade, from 33% in 1998 to 29% in 2007 (latest year available), but this remains well above the OECD average (21% in 2012). Alcohol consumption in Ireland is among the highest in OECD countries, with a consumption of 11.6 litres of alcohol per adult in 2012. Although alcohol consumption in Ireland has declined over the past decade, it still remains well above the OECD average (9.0 litres).

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Alcohol consumption in Ireland 2013

Long, J. and Mongan, D. (2014) Health Research Board

The main objective of the National Alcohol Diary Survey was to estimate personal consumption of, and expenditure on, alcohol among the general population aged 18–75 years living in private households in Ireland.
The survey included a comprehensive series of questions on both the rates and patterns of alcohol consumption in Ireland and on alcohol related harm, and it involved interviewing 5,991 respondents in 3,897 households.
The respondents were randomly selected using a two-stage probability sampling procedure. The survey was completed between July and October 2013, and achieved a household response rate of 67.2% and a within-household response rate of 77.1%. The survey population was weighted by age, gender and regional distribution, to ensure that the survey population mirrored the Central Statistics Office’s population estimates for 2013.

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Global status report on alcohol and health 2014 - Country Profile Ireland

World Health Organisation (2014)

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Treated problem alcohol use in Ireland: figures for 2012 from the National Drug Treatment Reporting System.

Health Research Board (2014) National Health Information Systems, Health Research Board. 

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Alcohol's Harm to Others in Ireland

Dr Ann Hope (2014) Dublin: Health Service Executive

A report on the extent of harm caused across society by alcohol.report examines alcohol harm to people other than the drinker in three Irish settings – the general population, the workplace and children and families.
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Barriers or Bridges? Drugs rehabilitation projects - the road to recovery

Citywide Drugs Crises Campaign. 2014.

A citywide consultation report

 

Promoting the participation of seldom heard young people: a review of the literature on best practice principles.

Kelleher, Cathy and Seymour, Mairead and Halpenny, Ann Marie (2014) Centre for Social & Educational Research, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin.

The purpose of this research was to review national and international literature on the participation
of seldom heard young people and to identify best practice principles in the field. Key objectives
were:

  • to provide a detailed account of what is meant by seldom heard children and young people;
  • to examine the core aspects of participation as well as the barriers and challenges to participation for seldom heard children and young people;
  • to identify approaches which can improve the inclusion of seldom heard children and young people in decision-making that affects their lives.

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Young people, alcohol and sex: What's consent got to do with it?

McNeela, P., Conway, T., Kavanagh, S., Kennedy, L.A., McCaffrey, J.. 2014. Rape Crises Network Ireland (RCNI) and NUI Galway

Exploring how attitudes to alcohol impact on judgements about consent to sexual activity: A qualitative study of university students.
 
 

The older child and sexual violence. Questions and challenges for a national response (RCNI Policy Document)

Rape Crises Network Ireland (RCNI). 2014. 

In this document RCNI sets out some key concerns along with gaps, opportunities and challenges which impact across a number of departments and statutory agencies including; the Departments of Children and Youth Affairs, Education and Skills, Health, and Justice and Equality and the Child and Family Agency, HSE and Cosc: the National Office for the Prevention of Domestic, Sexual and Gender Based Violence.
 
 

Drug-related deaths and deaths among drug users in Ireland: 2011 figures from the National Drug-Related Deaths Index.

Health Research Board. (2014) Health Research Board, Dublin.

 
 
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Drug and alcohol misuse among young offenders on probation supervision in Ireland: findings from the Drugs and Alcohol Survey 2012.

Horgan, John J. (2013) Probation Service, Dublin.

This research report presents the findings from a national survey on: “Drug and Alcohol Misuse among Young Offenders on Probation Supervision in Ireland". Undertaken by the Probation Service, the survey included all young offenders, aged 20 years or less who were subject to statutory supervision on the 3rd December 2012.

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North Inner City Drugs Task Force trends and behaviours online survey . Violence, intimidation and threats.

North Inner City Drugs Task Force. (2013) North Inner City Drugs Task Force, Dublin

A summary of the results of the North Inner City Drugs Task Force trends and behaviours online survey on violence, intimidation and threats.

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Data co-ordination overview of drug misuse 2012.

Kidd, Martina (2013) Health Service Executive South, Waterford.

The report contains data collected and collated from statutory, voluntary and community services in the South East. The report also contains data collated for other problems including gambling and concerned persons.
The data contained in the report is based upon the analysis of a number of different data systems. These are National Drug Treatment Reporting System (NDTRS), Hospital In-patient Enquiry System (HIPE Scheme), National Psychiatric In-Patient Reporting System (NPIRS)

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The efficacy of minimum unit pricing, fiscal and other pricing public policies for alcohol.

Power, Jim and Johns, Chris (2013) Department of Health, Dublin.

This report was commissioned from CJP Consultants Limited by the Department of Health. It sets out the issues relating to hazardous and harmful consumption of alcohol in Ireland. It looks at the international experience and poliucy response; and makde recommendations about how the problems caused by hazardous alcohol consumption can and should be tackled in Ireland.

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Fifteen year olds’ alcohol, cigarette and drug use in Ireland: results from a pilot study.

Van Hout, Marie Claire (2012) Youth Studies Ireland, 5 (2). pp. 1-11.

This article draws on a research project which employed a sequential mixed-method approach with a sample of fifteen year olds (n=95) as a pilot study to guide the development of a large scale qualitative study investigating youth substance use patterns, processes, settings and drug transitions within the south east region of Ireland (Van Hout 2009a-d; 2010).

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‘Coffee houses’ and ‘Crime prevention': Some thoughts on youth cafés and Garda youth diversion projects in the context of youth work in Ireland.

O’hAodain, Michael (2012) Youth Studies Ireland, 5 (2). pp. 1-16.

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An analysis of current licit and illicit drug use patterns in the Finglas-Cabra local drugs task force area.

O'Gorman, Aileen and Piggott, Kevin and Napier, Kristina and Driscoll, Alan and Emerson, Darren and Mooney, Robert and Fennelly, Cara and Gately, Pamela and Foley, Mary (2013) Finglas/Cabra Local Drugs Task Force, Dublin.

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Decriminalisation: A new direction for drugs policy? 

Citywide. (2013) Dublin

Citywide held a conference in May 2013 to open a debate on the issue of decriminalisation as set out in our 2012 Citywide Policy Document. This policy document was produced through wide consultation and reflected concerns expressed about criminalising people with addictions and the subsequent effects that this has on their lives. It also highlighted major concerns about the intimidation and violence that is impacting on people as a result of the illegal drugs trade. Concern about these issues has been mirrored around the world as there is an international push to review the ‘War on Drugs’ and to explore and implement alternative drugs policies.

At the May 2013 conference the most frequent comment from attendees was that they had not fully understood the difference between decriminalisation and legalisation and that they were unaware of the way decriminalisation has worked in other countries. This leaflet was produced to provide basic information including sources of further information. 

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The mental health of young people in Ireland: a report of the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research across the Lifespan (PERL) Group Dublin.

Cannon, Mary and Coughlan, Helen and Clarke, Mary and Harley, M and Kelleher, Ian (2013) Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, Dublin.

There has been a dearth of epidemiological research on rates of mental disorder among Irish people and little is known about the numbers of young people in Ireland who are experiencing diagnosable mental disorders. In the context of such limited epidemiological research in the field of mental health, the PERL Group in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland has conducted two studies on mental disorders and psychopathology among young Irish people. This report is the first research report from these two studies by the PERL Group. It provides data on the prevalence rates of mental disorder, substance use, deliberate self-harm and suicidality among young Irish people aged 11-24 years.

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Tobacco free Ireland. 

Tobacco Policy Review Group. (2013) Department of Health, Dublin.

The terms of reference of the review were as follows:
1. To examine Irish and international evidence and experience of effective measures and programmes
to reduce smoking prevalence
2. To make policy proposals to the Minister aimed at reducing smoking initiation and prevalence.

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How did I get here?

O'Reilly, Owen (2013) Cork Simon Community, Cork.

In 2012 Cork Simon’s emergency shelter accommodated 411 people. It was full every night. 41% (n. 167) were staying at the shelter for the first time. 17% (n. 69) were long-term homeless. We met 161 people sleeping rough on at least one night - a four-fold increase compared to the previous year. Our nightly soup run met over 600 people – more than half of whom were in private rented housing; more than one in four were staying with friends. They had yet to be overwhelmed by what was happening in their lives, but many were most likely on the edge of homelessness. The effects of the recession are now being felt at the frontline of homelessness.

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Melting the iceberg of fear: a collective response.

Jennings, Philip (2013) Safer Blanchardstown, Dublin.

Objective:

This paper aims to; (a) highlight who is likely to engage in intimidation (b) who is likely to be a victim (c) What are the causal factors leading to intimidation (e) suggest possible interventions (f) inform future research into intimidation.

To assist partner agencies and the wider community to better respond to issues of drug related intimidation and to intimidation / harassment generally.

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The HBSC Ireland trends report 1998–2010: Child health behaviours, outcomes and contexts.

Gavin, Aoife and Molcho, Michal and Kelly, Colette and Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse (2013) Department of Health and National University of Ireland, Galway, Dublin.

The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) trends report presents findings on indicators of children’s health and well-being between 1998 and 2010. The report is divided into three main sections: health behaviours; health outcomes and contexts of children’s lives. In general, this report presents findings that highlight positive changes to children’s lives across each of these three areas.

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National Registry of Deliberate Self Harm annual report 2012.

Griffin, E. and Arensman, Ella and Wall, A and Corcoran, Paul and Perry, Ivan J. (2013) National Suicide Research Foundation, Cork.

This is the eleventh annual report from the National Registry of Deliberate Self Harm. It is based on data collected on persons presenting to hospital emergency departments as a result of deliberate self-harm in 2012 in the Republic of Ireland. The Registry had near complete coverage of the country’s hospitals for the period 2002-2005 and, since 2006, all general hospital and paediatric hospital emergency departments in the Republic of Ireland have contributed data to the Registry.

In 2012, the Registry recorded 12,010 presentations to hospital due to deliberate selfharm nationally, involving 9,483 individuals. Taking the population into account, the age-standardised rate of individuals presenting to hospital following deliberate self-harm in 2012 was 211 per 100,000, a 2% decrease on the rate in 2011. This decrease follows a 4% decrease in the rate of persons presenting to hospital following deliberate selfharm in Ireland from 2010 to 2011. However, the rate in 2012 was still 12% higher than that in 2007.

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Second report of the Suicide Support and Information System.

Arensman, Ella and Wall, A and McAuliffe, Carmel and Corcoran, Paul and Williamson, Eileen and Duggan, Aine and Perry, Ivan J. (2013) National Suicide Research Foundation, Cork.

This is the second report of the Suicide Support and Information System (SSIS). The first report of the SSIS was published in July 2012 (Arensman et al, 2012).

In 2008, The National Office for Suicide Prevention(NOSP) commissioned the National Suicide Research Foundation to establish a National Suicide Support and Information System in line with Action 25.2 of the Reach Out National Strategy for Action on Suicide Prevention 2005-2014 (HSE, 2005). The first SSIS report provided outcomes of the implementation of the SSIS during the pilot phase in the Cork region, descriptive characteristics of people who died by suicide and who were recorded by the SSIS, and details of a large cluster of suicide among young men identified by the SSIS.

In total, 307 cases were recorded by the SSIS between September 2008 and June 2012 (275 suicides and 32 open verdicts fulfilling the case finding criteria). Coroner checklists were completed for all 307 cases.

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National Office for Suicide Prevention annual report 2012.

National Office for Suicide Prevention. (2013) Health Service Executive, Dublin.

The most recent official figures produced by the CSO indicate that there were 495 deaths by suicide in Ireland in 2010. This figure is below the profile for most EU countries yet the figures for young men are particularly high by international comparison. The identification of comparable overall trends is difficult given the time-lags in the confirmation of official data and requires on-going analysis.

The most recent confirmed data for 2010, taken together with figures from the National Register of Deliberate Self-Harm, would suggest a stabilisation in the rates of suicidal behaviour. Yet, suicide rates remain too high and a community wide effort is required to reduce suicide rates.

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Substance misuse among health care workers .

Bennett, Jennifer and O'Donovan, D (2001) Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 14 . pp. 195-199.

Substance misuse by healthcare professionals raises many concerns, including the threat to patient care. This review summarizes the recent literature concerning misuse by doctors (physicians), nurses, dentists, undergraduates and other healthcare workers. Self-medication is common among doctors. Specific specialities are noted to be at higher risk, including emergency medicine, psychiatry, anaesthetics, and nurses in high stress specialities. Most studies are descriptive cross-sectional prevalence studies of self-reported substance use. Dedicated treatment programmes are reviewed, including specific treatment services for addicted professionals created at national, regional and local levels. A recognition of the risk of substance misuse should be explicitly included early in the training of healthcare workers. Specialist treatment programmes should be holistic in approach, and should not concentrate solely on substance misuse issues but include the treatment of depression, anxiety, sexual disorders and adjustment disorders.

Link to article

 

Visible lives: Identifying the experiences and needs of older lesbian, gay bisexual and transgender people in Ireland.

Higgins, A., Sharek, D., McCann, E., Sheeran, F., Glacken, M., Breen, M., and McCarron, M. (2011). The Gay and Lesbian Equality Network (GLEN), Dublin.

Approximately two-thirds of the survey participants reported living in towns or cities of more than 5,000 people. Participants from 25 counties out of the 26 counties within the Republic of Ireland were involved in the survey. Nearly seven out of ten survey participants reported owning their own home. Less than 1% of the sample lived in a nursing home/continuing care residence. 

• There were relatively high rates of survey participants who were single (43.1%) and living alone (45.8%). 
• The majority of those under 65 years of age, the typical age of retirement in Ireland, were working, while the majority of those over 65 years of age were retired. 
• There was a large variation in reported household income with almost one-quarter indicating that their household income was under €19,999 per year and more than one-third reporting it to be over €50,000 per year. By far the most common source of income for participants was work or selfemployment. 
• Nearly 14% of survey participants were providing care to a variety of people including parents, children, siblings, partners and friends. 
• Only 10 of the survey participants were not out as LGBT to anyone.

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Smoking outside: the effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed.

Savage, M (2013) Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin.


In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employed relative to the non-working population following the introduction of the workplace smoking ban. By isolating those workers most affected by the ban, the research finds that the workplace smoking ban did not induce a greater reduction in smoking prevalence among the employed population compared to the non-working population. In fact, the evidence suggests a significantly larger decrease in smoking prevalence among the non-workers relative to the employed. This pattern is particularly strong for occasional smokers. Changes in the real price of cigarettes and changes in attitudes to risk are discussed as possible causes for the pattern observed.

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Tracking the needs and service provision for women ex-prisoners. 

McHugh, Rosemarie (2013) Association for Criminal Justice, Dublin.

This paper presents the findings of research conducted with female prisoners serving short sentences in the Dóchas Centre. The research focussed in particular on the needs of this cohort of women upon leaving prison. 16 women were interviewed within the Dóchas Centre; the study was primarily a qualitative one which aimed to understand the subjective experiences of the women and communicate their stories by giving primacy to the women’s own ‘voices’.
 

 

A manual in quality standards in substance use education: evaluation report

Mannix McNamara, Patricia and Moynihan, Sharon (2013)  Drug Education Workers Forum.

This report set out to evaluate the training provided by the Drug Education Workers Forum (DEWF) on the manual in Quality Standards in Substance Use Education as well as the efficacy of the manual itself.

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Focus on alcohol misuse among older people.

Breen, Conor (2013) Centre for ageing research and development in Ireland (CARDI), Dublin.

Many public health campaigns on the misuse of alcohol are aimed at younger age groups. However, there is evidence that alcohol misuse is increasing in people over the age of 65. For a variety of reasons, alcohol misuse among these older people may go unnoticed (Department of Work and Pensions, 2013).
In the Republic of Ireland (ROI), alcohol consumption among the over 65s is lower than other age groups, and 23% of that age group have never drank. However, 10% of those over 65 are consuming alcohol on four or more days per week, higher than any other age group (Health Research Board, 2012). While younger people in Northern Ireland (NI) drink more than those in older age groups, 16% of people aged 60-74 exceed the weekly guidelines for sensible drinking (Public Health Agency, 2011). This edition of the CARDI “Focus on . . .” series looks at alcohol misuse among older people across the island of Ireland and asks if more could be done in policy and social work terms to address the associated health and welfare issues among older age groups.

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Evaluation of the Community Safety Initiative of the Childhood Development Initiative. 

Kearns, Noreen and Reddy, John and Canavan, John (2013) Childhood Development Initiative, Dublin.

In September 2008, the Childhood Development Initiative (CDI) began the 3-year process of implementing the Community Safety Initiative (CSI) in Tallaght West, Co. Dublin. Through supporting local resident interaction and promoting collaborative responses to addressing local safety issues, the CSI seeks to improve people’s perceptions of safety, improve neighbour relations and promote a safe and healthy environment for children and families. The overall aims of the initiative (CDI, 2012) are:
• to improve safety and to promote pro-social behaviour across Tallaght West;
• to improve community awareness and participation in local activities and services;
• to encourage wide community engagement in maintaining a safe environment.

This report is the final output of the 3-year evaluation (2008-2011) of the CSI by the Child and Family Research Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway. It builds on the research from three phases of data collection in order to present a comprehensive assessment of the development and implementation of the CSI. Specifically, the report evaluates the achievement of the overall aims of the CSI in this period in order to answer the evaluation’s overall research questions, which are:
1. How is the CSI being implemented and what is the value of the logic underpinning the initiative?
2. Were there any changes in (1) perceptions of safety and (2) safety and/or crime prevention within the four target areas of Tallaght West?
3. If yes, what role (if any) did CSI activities play in influencing change (e.g. increasing community engagement and enhancing a ‘sense of belonging’ among community members) in the four areas?
4. What are the outcomes for children, parents and the wider community?

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Problem alcohol use among problem drug users in primary care: a qualitative study of what patients think about screening and treatment. 

Field, Catherine Anne and Klimas, Jan and Barry, Joseph and Bury, Gerard and Keenan, Eamon and Smyth, Bobby P. and Cullen, Walter (2013) BMC Family Practice, 14 . p. 98.

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